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Is Nyquil a Form of Birth Control?: Health Education in Chicago Public Schools

While teaching a health workshop at Rickover Naval Academy (a Chicago Public School) one of the students asked me “what does sex stand for and where was it first used?” Other questions and comments that other volunteers and I have received while teaching these workshops include, “I heard Nyquil is a form of birth control because it puts your sperm to sleep.” and “What is a period?” I was shocked to receive these questions and comments from 15-year old high school freshmen. How have our health education systems and infrastructure failed us so miserably that high school students don’t know what a period is by the end of ninth grade?

At the same time and in the same classrooms, I received the following questions and comments, “how can you stop someone from raping you?”, “I want to learn when and how to ask for help.”, “Are there male contraceptives?”, “How do I have a healthy relationship?”, and “Will having sex impact the feelings of family and friends in a positive or negative way?” The variety of these questions clearly shows the different headspaces that each of these students are in. Some students still don’t understand what menstruation is while others understand the physical aspects of reproduction and sex and want to learn about the emotional side. Some students are scared to talk about it, some are excited, and others are shy. Some students have never kissed anyone while others have had various types of sex with multiple partners.

While CPS mandates that high schoolers get 675 minutes of sex education each year they often don’t have the manpower or resources to ensure that this education is effective or even to check if the 675 minutes are met at all. Teachers are often overloaded already and the one or two sex educators or health instructors that schools may have on staff often don’t have the time to teach comprehensive curricula to the hundreds of students in each grade. This is where Peer Health Exchange (PHE) comes in. PHE is a national organization based out of several larger cities across the US with the mission to empower young people with the knowledge, skills, and resources to make healthy decisions. To carry out this mission, PHE trains college students to teach health workshops to ninth graders to fill in the existing gap in health education in these schools. At Northwestern, 85 student volunteers teach a series of 14 workshops per year in six public high schools in Chicago. Workshops cover everything from alcohol use to mental health to healthy relationships. Using a near-peer model (university students are only a few years older than the high schoolers we work with) often makes it easier for students to relate with their teachers, particularly around health issues.

But this isn’t enough. This summer, the Chicago Tribune uncovered massive problems of sexual abuse and assault in CPS. As a result, there was a system-wide overhaul, finding that multiple teachers were accepted into CPS despite having histories of child abuse. CPS students shouldn’t face prejudice and abuse regarding their sexual orientation and gender from other students, staff, and faculty members. Instead, school should be a safe space for students where their basic needs and rights are served so that they can learn without fearing for their safety. At a minimum, this should mean students being able to walk around without fear that their teachers may take advantage of them and that their questions about their health will be answered appropriately and with scientifically-correct information.

In Peer Health Exchange, we are trying to do our part to address the education piece of this puzzle. We are constantly adapting our curricula and our teaching methods to make sure we are being as inclusive as possible in the classroom. This means acknowledging and teaching about health that affects all types of people, people with different ability statuses, races, gender, religions, etc. This year’s curriculum explicitly includes images and stories of people of color and people with disabilities in an attempt to follow health education best practices and as a result of the feedback we have heard from students. As we think more critically about our role in the classroom and how it affects the students we work with, CPS must continue to do the same. CPS students deserve a comprehensive health education and a supportive school environment. Hopefully the steps being taken by PHE and now CPS are just the beginning of what will be an environment that students can feel safe and thrive in.

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A Deeper Look at GESI

When I first heard about the study abroad program offered by the Global Engagement Studies Institute (GESI) I was a little reluctant to apply. GESI combines two of the things I enjoy the most: community service and exploring unfamiliar territories. As someone who has always been interested in community service, spending a summer abroad engaging in service projects in an unfamiliar community sounded like an ideal way to spend my summer. Despite this, I was concerned about how my stay would affect the local community. I have always been interested in figuring out ways to engage in my community, whether that be here at Northwestern or back home.  

GESI is not like your typical study abroad program. GESI is a two-month program that focuses on community engagement and community-driven change. In addition to taking two courses, students partake in an internship while abroad. These internships are often through nongovernmental organizations that focus on public health, the environment, social justice, women’s empowerment, and education. While in country, students focus on developing an extensive project that will provide the most benefit to the organization. Some of the partnering organizations already have project ideas for the students to implement while others let the students decide and implement a project that they believe will be the most effective. In addition to this one project, there are other smaller jobs and projects for the students, depending on the partnering organization.

I was indecisive about doing GESI because of the short period of time I would be in the country. There are countless of articles and documentaries out there that talk about the dangers of service trips. Every time I think of service trips, I think of Pippa Biddle and her experience with a service trip abroad. Biddle spent a week in Tanzania building a library, but her and her classmates were not qualified to construct such a building. The students worked long and hard every day mixing cement and laying bricks. Every night, the locals would gather and undo all of the work the students had done because they did all of it wrong. The locals were very appreciative of their work, so they worked at night so that the students would not feel bad.

Brittany A. Aronson, author of the article “The White Savior Industrial Complex: A Cultural Studies Analysis of a Teacher Educator, Savior Film, and Future Teachers” defines the white savior industrial complex as the “confluence of practices, processes, and institutions that reify historical inequities to ultimately validate white privilege,” (39). The white industrial complex is comprised of people acting and not thinking of what the community they are “helping” actually needs. I was familiar with what the white savior complex and how, despite not identifying as white, I could contribute to this by participating in GESI. I talked to students who had done the program in different locations and I started warming up more to the idea of GESI. I learned that GESI starts off with an intensive week-long pre-departure program. During this week, students take two courses. Both of these courses are geared towards preparing students with the necessary tools and skills to adequately interact with the local communities whilst abroad. One of these courses “Development in the Global Context: Participation, Power and Social Change” was taught by Global Health Studies Professor Noelle Sullivan. Sullivan has done extensive research on voluntourism, a form of tourism that revolves around travelers partaking in acts of service usually through a charity or a nongovernmental organization. All of this led me to make an informed decision about the program.

After researching and talking to alumni of the program, I ultimately decided to GESI this past summer. The pre-departure section of the program was super intensive, but it made me feel a little less lost about the whole process. The material we engaged with and the lectures given by both professors made me more critical of my mindset going in. Both professors reminded the group about how these communities did not need our help and how they were functioning just fine without our intervention. I appreciated the reminder and the realness of the professors when it came to teaching the material. Everyone on the teaching staff made it very clear that GESI had its own issues being a short-term program, but they all emphasized teaching students about these savior complexes in order to make sure students were better prepared to work in these new communities.

I decided to do GESI in Costa Rica because of my familiarity with the Spanish language. I interned at the Santa Rosa National Park in Costa Rica. My internship allowed me to not only connect with locals but also tourists from all over the world. GESI was one of the most rewarding and eye-opening experiences I have done to this day. I learned so much about the culture, community, and also about myself. GESI taught me to be more introspective and reflective about my experiences. Participating in this program the summer after my freshman year prepared me to better engage with the material presented in the entry-level global health courses. It taught me how better communicate with team members when conflict arises. Most importantly, GESI connected me with so many amazing individuals, whether that be students from Northwestern or members of the local community in Costa Rica.

Click here to learn more about the GESI program!

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Global Partnerships Lead to Empathetic Storytelling in Lebanon and Nigeria

Access to Health, Northwestern’s interdisciplinary health and human rights project, links Medill journalists with local partners, shedding light on global health and human rights issues.

This article was originally published by the Office of International Relations.

October 17, 2018
By Mira Wang

In 2017, Elijah Atinkpo and his entire community were forcefully and violently evicted from their homes in Lagos, Nigeria. About 800 homes were torched, and 10,000 people left homeless—all to create the royal Elegushi family’s new commercial development project.

Atinkpo, who works for an NGO called the Justice & Empowerment Initiatives (JEI), hadn’t had the chance to see his former home until July this summer.

“The return home had a huge emotional impact on Elijah, and he broke down after trying to determine the location of where his home used to be,” said Dan Order, who graduated from the Master’s of Journalism program at the Medill School of Journalism, Media, and Integrated Marketing Communications, in August.

Order and his classmate Kaitlin Englund traveled to Lagos in July to create a video documentary and print story on the eviction. As far as Order could tell, they were the only journalists to have returned to the land since the evictions—a feat made possible through a novel partnership between Medill and Northwestern’s Access to Health (ATH) program, and ATH’s local partner organizations.

ATH, a project supported by Northwestern Pritzker’s Center for International Human Rights, Feinberg’s Center for Global Health and Program in Public Health and the Kellogg Public-Private Interface, takes a unique approach to development work at a university. Instead of choosing its own projects, ATH only works at the invitation of local organizations or community leaders to assist with a particular health and human rights related problem.

This year, for the first time, ATH connected eight Medill graduate students and two faculty advisors with long-time partner organizations in Nigeria and Lebanon to tell stories on community evictions, child trafficking, LGBT issues, domestic workers’ issues, access to education and child marriage.

“A journalist’s perspective is vital to the communities in which we work, partnerships we forge and the issues we tackle,” said Juliet Sorensen, the Director of the Bluhm Legal Clinic at Pritzker and the founder and director of ATH. “The media has a way to advocate and shine a light on issues in a way that is different and less constrained than the law.”

ATH and Medill in Lebanon

In Lebanon, ATH linked Medill students to Basmeh & Zeitoonah, a local organization that works with Syrian refugees to develop revenue-generating activities for women.

Throughout ATH’s partnership with the organization, they have enlisted Pritzker students to delve into employment restrictions on Syrian refugees in Lebanon and Kellogg students to assist women’s workshops with marketing their artisanal work and refugee-empowerment message to customers around the world.

Four Medill graduate student reporters and faculty advisor Craig Duff, a Medill professor who specializes in video and broadcast journalism, visited Lebanon in the spring. Their stories focused on child marriage among Syrian refugees, domestic workers’ experiences, local efforts to address LGBT issues and access to education among Syrian children.

ATH and Medill in Lagos, Nigeria

In Nigeria, ATH works with JEI to address low levels of health literacy among slum inhabitants. With local collaborators, the ATH team designed a community health educator process and appointed a Lagosian project manager in the city to manage curriculum and training.

In July, Brent Huffman, an associate professor at Medill and documentary filmmaker, took four Medill graduate students to Lagos to make two character-based short documentaries on child trafficking and forced eviction. The documentaries will premiere on Al Jazeera Shorts in late 2018.

By the end of the trip, Huffman said the students didn’t want to leave.

“We all fell in love with the city and saw the amazing value of the kind of work JEI does and the value of the kind of reporting we were doing to spread awareness and be a catalyst for positive change,” said Huffman.

More about ATH

Throughout the years, ATH has assembled an array of diverse projects, including working with rural communities in Mali to address female genital cutting, collaborating with healthcare providers in the Dominican Republic to increase the quality of patient service, and assessing the health and human rights impacts of gun violence in Chicago. Currently, ATH has projects in Kenya, India, Nigeria, Lebanon and Chicago.

Using its cross-school connections, ATH gathers a mix of graduate students and business, medical and law faculty to work on impactful solutions to add value to the site in need.

An associated class, called Health and Human Rights, assembles law, business and public health students into teams of consultants to research and innovate new approaches to common issues, based on feedback from community-based partners.

Elise Meyer, ATH’s Schuette Clinical Fellow who assists with all ongoing projects, also helped actualize the partnership with Medill. Bringing journalists into the project was an important part of their advocacy work, she said.

“Journalism presents a powerful medium to advocate for change, highlight issues, and bring attention to marginalized communities,” said Meyer. “Journalism is especially important to communities like slums and informal settlements in Lagos and the refugee camps in Lebanon, both of which are isolated and (willfully) ignored by the public.”

“The new Medill-ATH partnership demonstrates the breadth of depth and expertise that a research university like Northwestern can offer, in not just providing technical expertise on the ground, but also providing an outlet for our local partners to tell their stories.” said Sorensen. “Health access takes multidisciplinary partnership to address complicated societal issues.”

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Young Research Group students attend American Society for Nutrition’s 2018 conference

On the weekend of June 9th, five students from the Young Research Group had the opportunity to travel to Boston, Massachusetts and present their senior research projects at the American Society for Nutrition’s annual Nutrition 2018 conference. Each senior was accepted to give a poster presentation and senior Jordan Harris was also nominated for the Emerging Leaders award. This award highlights promising research submitted by students and young investigators.

Funding was provided by conference travel grants within the Program in Global Health Studies, the Office of Undergraduate Research, and Weinberg College of Arts & Sciences.

(more…)

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The 2018 Emory International Global Health Case Competition: Diving into Infectious Disease Containment

Back in March, I participated in the Emory International Global Health Case Competition. The experience was, first and foremost, incredibly humbling. To be in a space full of experts and students of different disciplines but all converge on their commitment to global health was really invaluable. The competition was energetic and engaging, and made me realize how many brilliant thinkers are motivated by the same goals as me.

I traveled to Atlanta, Georgia, along with five other Northwestern students, to spend a weekend fully immersed in developing an innovative solution to a global health-related case. The Emory Global Health Institute invites students from all over the world to spend two days working with an interdisciplinary team to tackle modern health challenges. In the Northwestern group, three students from the Feinberg School of Medicine teamed up with three undergraduates of different majors – Biological Sciences, Psychology and Journalism.

Left to right: Supriya Rastogi, Courtney Zhu, Emilie Umuhire, Chen Chen, Matthew Doerfler and Giancarlo Atassi.

The 2018 case focused on emergency disease containment. The issue, in summary, was a coronavirus outbreak at the 2022 FIFA World Cup in Qatar, where millions of fans, athletes, celebrities and diplomats from all around the world will come together – potentially instigating an worldwide epidemic with fatal implications. Each team was called on to propose a comprehensive strategy to address the “FIFA Virus” with a 50 million USD budget.

Our team developed a five-fold strategy: containment, control and prevention, public education, collaborative network, and research for sustainability. Beyond controlling the outbreak, a cornerstone of our project was sustainability and how our response may help strengthen Qatar’s public health system.

I had never grasped the immense complexity of infectious disease containment until this experience. The outbreak response and surveillance protocol itself is full of complications. We asked hundreds of questions such as, “How can we prevent virus from spreading to non-infected persons?” or “How can we treat existing cases, while also delivering prophylactic care to those who have been potentially exposed?” In the process, a number of legal and ethical battles surfaced, especially with regard to quarantine and border control measures. I realized the urgency of infectious disease outbreaks and came to really admire the intricacy of epidemiology.

Perhaps most importantly, the Emory Case Competition did something a college classroom simply cannot replicate. It was one thing to read about outbreak responses, but attempting to create and implement one called for what I deem actionable thinking. Unlike emphasizing conceptual theory, actionable thinking is rooted in application and pushing those theoretical boundaries.

I also owe so much of this experience to my amazing team. Each person had different backgrounds and ideas, but we all united on our love for learning and global health. We spent late nights working in our hotel rooms – sleep-deprived and frustrated – but at no point did we want to give up on perfecting our solution. I am thankful to have learned so much from each of them, but also to share many laughs and memories along the way.

The Northwestern team on Presentation day.

At the closing reception, Jeffrey Koplan, the former director of the Central for Disease Control (CDC), remarked in his closing speech that the demographic of global health leaders is slowly evolving. He noted the contrast of his generation of majority-white, male-dominated professions with the incredibly diverse, majority-female participants of this competition.

That said, this weekend gave me hope for the future of global health. The fact that hundreds of people carved out three full days to address an invented virus is telling: people really care. Much of global health today is infuriating. Interventions can be ineffectual, or some may do more harm than good. But the dedication, thoughtfulness and diversity of the people I met this weekend assured me that the future is in good hands.

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