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Radulovacki Research Fellow Subin Hwang Investigates Refugee Health Care in Germany

Subin Hwang was one of the recipients of the Radulovacki Global Health Research Fellowships. She spent her summer in Berlin, Germany studying health care for refugees. This was the second consecutive summer that Subin has spent working with refugees and she hopes to one day work with marginalized populations as a doctor.

Tell us about your project.unnamed

I was in Berlin studying refugee health, the gaps in medical care, and barriers to accessibility. I was at a hospital where they allowed me to shadow their doctors and all of the different outpatient clinics they had for refugees specifically. On a daily basis I was shadowing, and towards the end I conducted a lot of interviews with the doctors, nurses, and interpreters. I also administered surveys to some of the refugees who were coming through the clinic.

How did you decide to study this topic?

I worked with refugees last summer in a nonprofit and I was helping them settle into America with social security, health care, employment—everything you would need to be equipped in a new country. That experience was really rewarding and something that I really enjoyed doing. Right after I finished that internship, there was something coined the “refugee crisis” all over the news. Many refugees had crossed the border into Europe, fleeing their war torn countries. That got me interested because I had just been working with refugees and had heard some of their stories. It was something I was really passionate about so I wanted to see how they were doing it Europe since their system is very different from ours, particularly the health care. I wanted to investigate how their system was handling the influx, what successes they were having, and how they were handling the challenges they were facing.

unnamed-3How did your experience on the ground vary from your expectations?

I expected it to be a lot like America since that was the only exposure I previously had to refugee healthcare. But it was a lot better than I had expected. For one, they had outpatient clinics staffed with doctors and nurses instead of just pushing them in with other low-income families or other marginalized groups. They also had a very efficient system.

In terms of my research project, I was expecting to work more with policy makers and overhead management but I was more on the ground with the doctors and nurses. Although it was different, it was still a very good experience and I got to see the difficulties at the point of service, which was very eye-opening.

What was your most meaningful experience abroad, and what did it teach you?

While I was immersed in my research, I also made it a point to engage with the community outside of the clinic. I attended a lot of events and there was one poetry event for refugees who wanted to share their poetry. It was incredible. I was so moved and everyone in the room was crying. It was a good way to humanize the population because I saw them in such huge numbers through the clinic. The way Germans do things is super efficient so tons of people come through very quickly. It’s good since more people can get what they need and be seen but I didn’t get that emotional component as much. So this event was a nice way to hear their stories since I think sometimes you lose sight of that when you’re working at such a quick pace.

What was the most challenging moment or aspect, and how did you cope?unnamed-1

There were moments when I didn’t speak the language or have all the information I needed or there was nothing I could do. It was challenging to see the systemic issues still at play that I, as a single person, could do nothing to change. It was pretty difficult seeing that on an everyday basis but there are people who are acting to change that.

Did you encounter any cultural differences that required getting used to?

A ton. With the doctors and nurses, I think it’s a German cultural thing to not be very personal. You don’t really talk about your life or your weekend. That was something I had to get used to. There it’s very much the mindset of: we work, we go home and we keep our personal lives separate.

With the female refugees, especially in Muslim cultures, their voices aren’t as valued as the men sometimes. Seeing that in a health care setting was disheartening because they may have things they want to talk about but they aren’t allowed to or they silence themselves. That was a different cultural barrier that I noticed.

Has your summer experience impacted your future goals and interests at Northwestern or after?

My summer at the nonprofit and this past summer doing research definitely solidified my desire to work with marginalized populations whether it’s refugees or immigrants or low-income families. More than anything this summer made that passion concrete. My future goal is to be a doctor but that is very far away. Having these experiences where I am actually interacting with people makes more of an impact than working with numbers, for example. I really appreciate the opportunity and it’s definitely something that will impact my future goals.

unnamed-2Do you have any advice for students wishing to conduct research in an unfamiliar location?

I think people shy away from doing anything abroad or anything away from a group of friends. It differs for each person—some people are very comfortable with that while others aren’t. I personally wasn’t that comfortable with it but I put myself out there and it was work that I really wanted to learn about. So I think if you are driven by a topic you are passionate about, the location shouldn’t be that big of a factor. College is the time to take advantage of those opportunities. I don’t know when else I would spend a summer in Berlin. Use the opportunities that Northwestern offers you to really expand upon what you are passionate about.

What do you do with this work? What are your next steps?

I will be using this research for my honors thesis. I will be analyzing the data further and I will be relaying all the key findings to my supervisor at the hospital. He will be taking all the findings and will take them into account for their policy changes as well. So it is not only research that will be beneficial for my learning experience but it will also hopefully affect larger populations and policies.

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Mabie Fellow Jason Chen Spends Summer Interning at South African Nonprofit Agency

Jason Chen was one of three recipients of the John and Martha Mabie Fellowship for Public Health Research this year. He spent his summer interning at Genesis, a health and youth focused nonprofit in South Africa.

img_4157Tell us about your project.

I had been studying with the IPD program in Stellenbosch, South Africa during spring quarter and wanted to stay the summer and work. So I was connected to this organization named Genesis and it’s associated with a church called Norwegian’s Settlers Church. They started this organization 15 years ago and started out as a medical facility during the beginning of the AIDS Crisis. It was kind of a place where people could go and die with dignity since there were no therapies or anything. This organization then expanded to do other things in the community like youth projects. Now it has grown to this huge organization and has a medical facility on campus, which is kind of like a rehabilitation center so that patients who need more time to recover can go and stay there until they’re healthy enough to go home to their families. Also on their campus is a youth center that a couple of different organizations have offices in as well as their own. They work in a couple of different communities locally, doing camps youth projects, and after school programs as well as a music academy.

I was living at the church and splitting my time between working with the nurses at the medical facility and some youth group projects. Interestingly I’m not Christian (I am Jewish) so it was super interesting living at a church but it did not negatively affect my experience at all.

What were your responsibilities for this internship?

With the nurses, I was pretty much doing everything they were doing. I wasn’t doing medical tasks; I was just caring for patients—changing them, cleaning them, changing beds, helping to feed them, as well as physical and occupational therapy. There were no doctors on site, just the nurses, so I helped check up on the patients.

I did get involved with the music facility a little bit and helped put on a concert that the kids put on for the community. It was also their holiday break for three weeks. So one week was a camp that we ran. There was also an afterschool program and I went to a high school and taught life skills. Life skills is a class in South Africa where they teach them values and self esteem, kind of like a health class but more socially driven. We also talked about HIV with them. It was really great over all. The kids in these communities are dealing with every problem you could possibly think of. Like in one community, the entire generation of parents is gone. The majority of the kids are orphans raised by their grandparents because HIV just wiped out all of them. Which is just crazy to think about. We tried to be there for them and be mentors for them.

But the other communities where HIV didn’t hit as hard, they’re dealing with rape, child abuse, and drinking and drug problems. Like when some of these parents come home at night, drunk and high, they beat their children. When the kids don’t want to stay home, they get beaten more for not staying home. They’re being taught all these really awful values. They’re going to stay in the cycle of poverty and at the bottom of the ladder because the institutionalized racism in South Africa. You have to motivate them to be extraordinary or they are just going to stay poor in this community. You can just instill good values and try to motivate them to want to do something with their lives.

How did you find this internship?

Networking. My uncle lives in Evanston and his daughter had an au pair who lived with them for two years. I got to know her and she’s South African and this is her father’s organization. So she grew up at this church and her father’s the pastor who organizes this.

How did your expectations compare to your actual experiences on the ground?

Regarding HIV specifically, there are these drugs if you take them daily, you’ll live and they’re being provided free by the government. So we all think the problem is providing access to these drugs but in this community there is access to these drugs and some people are still not taking them. They’re being told, “you need to take these to save your life,” and for every reason you can think of, some people are not taking them and they’re dying. That’s just something that you don’t really hear about here.

Also, the institutionalized racism. Apartheid ended 22 years ago now and the area that we were staying in when we were studying in Stellenbosch is the most white, racist part of South Africa now. There is definitely still blatant racism there and it very hard to see.

13615066_509568082566198_8642117469836073825_nHow do you think your experiences in South Africa have impacted your future goals and interests?

I hope to go into medicine. I am going to take a year off and then try to go to medical school. I hope to get a Masters in Public Health while I get a Medical Degree. I’m also studying environmental science now and looking at the health aspect of environmental change. I think that during early college and high school, many people just think of becoming a surgeon and starting a practice. I definitely want to go beyond that and do more good through public health work. I also want to do more work abroad now.

Can you think of one moment that epitomizes your whole summer?

The most profound experience I had was getting to know one of the patients at the medical facility. This guy came in after a bike accident. He was sitting at the light and someone just hit him. He went into a coma and came out of it but was absolutely frozen in bed. He couldn’t really move his muscles or make any facial expressions. He could kind of, without moving his lips, mumble a little bit and say my name. His hands would shake and the nurses are always pretty busy and they deal with so much death all of the time that they kind of become accustomed to not becoming close to the patients. But I would go and hold his hands until they would stop shaking and became pretty close with this patient. Two to three weeks went by and he was getting worse. I thought he would probably die over the weekend. I left work Friday and when I came back Tuesday he had gotten new antibiotics and was talking and moving. By that Wednesday he was in a wheelchair, moving himself around, and I was having full conversations with him. It was just a crazy, moving experience.

So I took two things from that. One, I am not a very religious person but they do use faith in this facility a lot since it’s at a church. A lot of people in South Africa are very religious. Regardless of if I think it works or not, faith does seem to be helping the healing process for a lot of these patients. That was very eye opening to me. I don’t necessarily have to believe it but if it’s working well for others I may as well help with it. Second, through my kindness and the nurses’ kindness he was then inspired to come back and volunteer with the church once he’s healthy.

 img_4045 Do you have any advice for other students who want to intern abroad or work at a nonprofit abroad?

I ran into a lot of roadblocks with visas. While I was here doing research, I couldn’t figure out if I could get a visa and was getting a lot of push back from the administration. But I was pretty determined to stay over the summer and do it. I went to South Africa not totally sure if I would be able to stay but I figured out the system and it ended up working out. So don’t just let people tell you that you can’t do something. If you want to do it, really push it and try to weasel your way through things. It might work out!

 

 

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Working to Promote Maternal Health in Rural Kenya: An Alumna Interview with Gabriella DelHoyo (WCAS 2012)

Name: Gabriella DelHoyo (WCAS 2012)

Major: Political Science

Minor: Global Health Studies

Gabriella DelHoyo graduated in 2012 with a Political Science major and Global Health Studies minor. For the past year and a half, Gabriella has been working with the 2020 Microclinic Initiative to improve maternal health in rural Kenya.

What else were you involved in while you were at NU?

The biggest thing I was involved in at NU was the Living Wage Campaign. It was really exciting, a lot of work, and my involvement was definitely a reflection of my interest in social justice and making an impact in our community. It was a student-run campaign to gain living wages for dining hall employees, some of whom had worked at Northwestern for 15 or 20 years, yet were still not receiving living wages. Ultimately the campaign won the wages, and I’m so grateful I got to be a part of it!

gabriella-delhoyoWhat did you do after graduation?

To be honest, I wasn’t really sure what I wanted to do after college, so I saved some money and went on a trip through Europe for a few months with a good friend. After that, I came back to Los Angeles and was offered an opportunity to work for a wealth management company. I knew it wasn’t what I ultimately wanted to do, but I took the opportunity to gain experience and worked there for almost two years. I realized pretty quickly I wasn’t happy doing something that didn’t work to improve people’s health and well-being, so I decided to explore the reasons I had worked on a global health minor in college, and I started looking for work with nonprofits and for-profits with a social impact. I came across a job opening with 2020 Microclinic Initiative through an NU job listserv because the executive director of the organization is a Northwestern alumna as well. I was really excited to work with a fellow Wildcat and to gain experience in international development work.

Could you describe 2020 Microclinic’s mission and work in your own words?

Our mission is to make pregnancy and childbirth safe for women in medically underserved communities. Fifty percent of maternal deaths occur in Sub-Saharan Africa and almost all of these deaths are preventable. Dr. Moka Lantum, the founder of our organization, began his work in Kenya because the country has a great desire and will to improve maternal health. There’s a modest infrastructure of medical clinics throughout rural Kenya with medically-trained healthcare workers, but Dr. Moka saw that almost no women were giving birth in them or seeking care. Most women in these communities give birth in overcrowded hospitals or at home in unsafe conditions and without a medical professional present. Dr. Moka began reaching out to women and healthcare workers to find out the reasons why mothers weren’t delivering in clinics and found many contributing factors, one huge factor being a lack of access to transportation- meaning women have to travel miles on foot to get to a clinic. However, the most surprising reason he heard again and again was that women didn’t have clothes for their babies and were embarrassed to leave the clinic after birth with an unclothed baby. After hearing this, Dr. Moka began testing the idea of offering baby clothes to women who came into clinics for prenatal care, delivery, and postnatal care. Women quickly began coming in by the dozens, and clinics saw an increase of as much as 300% more deliveries when baby clothes were offered. Dr. Moka then began training women in Kenya to sew t-shirts into baby clothes, providing them with a marketable skill and recycling t-shirts from the US in the process. Today, the program exists in seven clinics, offering baby clothes and safe healthcare to thousands of women.874ab7_7e9b9f6936894a2cb1ca20ecaeedb49d

In addition to the baby clothing incentive, we offer emergency transportation services to women with high-risk traits, and we offer birth preparation and infant care training for all women in our program. This last element is the educational part of our program, which is actually evolving pretty quickly right now. Before, we offered women educational classes, but we recently turned those classes into an original maternal health card game, which has been something I’ve been especially proud to be a part of. The game teaches women the importance of coming into the clinic to seek care before, during and after birth. It also teaches them critical danger signs to look for and what to do about them. Ultimately, the game helps women view health as a community, rather than individually, so that we raise awareness and provide education for the community as a whole.

Lastly, we run two other programs: A medical residency program and an e-health data collection program. The residency program provides an important exchange of knowledge between US residents and Kenyan healthcare workers, as well as improves the healthcare practices serving families in the communities where we work. The e-health program works to improve data collection and organization in rural Kenya.

What is your position within 2020 Microclinic? What are your day to day responsibilities within this role?

I work with the Executive Director here in Los Angeles as the Development Associate, and, as the only US employee, I’ve been lucky to gain experience in so many different aspects of nonprofit work. I manage all of our donor and volunteer engagement, as well as maintain our donor database. I coordinate volunteer events, facilitate t-shirt drives, and design campaigns to raise awareness. I write and send all of our newsletters and correspondences. This year I designed a new website for the organization from scratch, which was really interesting, and I continue to develop our social media presence. I assist our Kenyan team with whatever support they need to maintain and improve our expanding baby clothing production and incentive program. I help organize and maintain accurate programmatic data, as well as assist in logistics. I’ve also supported the expansion of our medical residency program. I love the work I get to do most directly related to the program, so developing the maternal health card game has definitely been my favorite work in the past year.

What would you say is the most challenging aspect of your job?

First, I think learning to juggle a lot of different kinds of tasks and wear different hats is challenging, but very important in any job. Second, I would say that in this kind of international work, there can be some disappointment and frustration when projects don’t work out or there are time differences and communication issues or stalled projects. But I think those issues are manageable and pretty common in this kind of work.

What is your favorite part of this job or field?

It’s a wonderful feeling to see a positive outcome from the work we’re doing. It really captures the whole mentality behind everything you learn in the Global Health Studies program at NU in terms of being a global citizen and feeling connected to other people even though you haven’t gotten to meet them. For example, when I saw the pictures of mothers in Kenya playing our maternal health game with the trial cards I had printed here in LA, it was an incredible and awesome sensation. It’s what makes all the challenges worth it.

What role do you think your Global Health Studies courses at Northwestern are playing in the work you are doing now?

copy_of_baby_joyHonestly, Northwestern provides an incredible education, and I really realized that after college. Northwestern teaches you to be a good critical thinker and to explore any issue or idea in a multidisciplinary way. The most important thing that the global health program teaches you is to look at international development in a holistic way and to look for sustainable solutions that must be developed based on individual communities and real people’s day to day experiences. The global health program teaches students how to understand and explore the challenges people face in communities that are very different from what they know. I think the most important thing I learned is that you can’t go into someone else’s community and expect to bring a solution to them from an outside perspective. You have to learn about the people you want to help, and you have to learn with them. You have to try to understand how they see the world, and you have to learn how to work with them to figure out the best and most sustainable solutions. That’s part of the reason why this organization and its founder have been very inspiring to me.

Where did you study abroad? How do you think it influenced you and where you are now?

I went to Santiago, Chile. We learned about their public-private healthcare system, and we got to assist local research projects. I got to do mine in a middle school, which was really fun and definitely my favorite part of the program.

Do you have any advice or suggestions for current global health undergrads on how to get involved or prepare themselves for this type of work?

Being in college is the best time to explore different professional interests you might have. It’s a great time to try out different classes or internships for a few months at a time. If I could go back I would do much more exploring. Also, Evanston is such a great community and there is so much you can do there to learn about community development. No matter where you are, there is always so much to do in your own community, and doing so will always teach you more about yourself and what you want to do.

Do you have any advice or suggestions for current global health undergrads on choosing a career path in global health?

I think it can be overwhelming to know there are so many possibilities. Don’t be afraid to try something. If in six months you want to try a different aspect of global health or want to try something completely different, go with it!

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Maintaining Passion for Public Health during Residency: An Alumna Interview with Divya Mallampati (Weinberg 2009)

Divya Mallampati graduated from the Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences in 2009. She was a pre-medical student majoring in Anthropology and minoring in Global Health Studies. She discovered her passion for anthropology in her Freshman Seminar, “The Anthropology of Violence.” That course spurred a curiosity–one that would resonate till today–about the treatment of women’s bodies and how that affects the way they receive health care. Her thesis explored the use of contraceptives by women in India’s urban and rural areas, which was later expanded into a Fulbright Fellowship to focus on family planning initiatives for HIV-positive women in southern India.

After spending a year in India, she attended medical school at Harvard. Maintaining her passion for global health, she obtained a Master of Public Health. After graduation, she volunteered at the World Health Organization in the Department of HIV/AIDS. She is now an OB/GYN Resident at the McGaw Medical Center of Northwestern University.

 

Q: How were you able to balance your academic, social and extracurricular involvements during your time as an undergrad?

A: It’s always tough to integrate all of those things, particularly for people with many different interests. To see those interests coming to the fore. Something that I continue to remind myself is that people truly matter. People very much matter. In moments when you don’t know where you’re going with your life or when you’re stressed out or you’re falling behind, I center myself by reaching out to people who matter to me.

 

Q: Take me through what a normal day is like for you.

A: If I’m on an inpatient rotation, my days will start super early, around 5 or 5:30AM. You have to round on your patients, check on the people who were already admitted into the hospital. Then you get together with your team and talk about any issues that those patients may have. Then you may do work for those patients, go into surgeries, if you’re on labor and delivery, you go deliver babies and take care of those women. If I’m on an outpatient rotation, the days are a little nicer because the hours are more nine-to-five. It’s all clinics and all office work.

 

Q: How did global health at Northwestern influence you?

A: I think there’s a difference between the global health minor at Northwestern and global health at Northwestern. The minor is a set of classes and a group of students and faculty. It’s built to give you a solid foundation. What I loved most about that experience was that it was very multi-faceted. They did a wonderful job gathering a diverse set of topics, the professors were very knowledgable and they gave us a lot of independence to think. It wasn’t formulaic. It wasn’t boring lectures. They pushed you to think about issues beyond just numbers and facts.

As a result, that influences the way global health is done at Northwestern. You get a lot of creative minds, people who are willing to engage in a variety of discourse and a community. I came out with a group of friends who taught me more than I ever taught them. I still keep a lot of those friendships, and those are still the people I turn to today to discuss global health issues.

 

Q: What study abroad program did you go on, and what was that experience like for you?

A: I did the Mexico program in 2007. It was the first time I had been out of the country, so it was the first time I was dealing with these issues through the lens of global health and social justice. I approached it like an anthropologist, like an observer. I spent most of my time in Mexico taking in what I was seeing. We took classes, did a little bit of research and visited rural clinic sites. The biggest thing I took away was designing a schema to think about these issues rather than memorizing a bunch of facts and statistics.

 

Q: How has living close to a city–Chicago for undergrad, Boston for medical school, and now back to Chicago–influenced your education and career?

A: As an undergrad, I grossly underappreciated how much Chicago has to teach us about inequities and public health. I don’t think I was truly analyzing what was happening in Chicago because I was so focused on my interests in other healthcare settings. By the time I moved to Boston, I had solidified my interest in how healthcare systems worked and appreciated Boston in a way that I wasn’t able to do with Chicago. It is a city that deals with a lot of race discrimination and inequality. Now that I’m back in Chicago, it has been really wonderful to explore the city, now ten or eleven years later. Now, I’ve been trying to understand Chicago through a different lens.

 

Q: Any words of advice for Global Health students at Northwestern?

A: First, to be very flexible in life. Be open to things that happen to you because you will find many beautiful things in paths that you didn’t imagine taking. That is a scary piece of advice to receive, but it is so important. Second, figure out what people mean to you. Understand how you value people and how you work with people. It’s okay to make sacrifices for people you care about.

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Revitalization of Traditional Systems of Medicine in Rural Rajasthan

Not all forms of effective medical treatment come in a pill bottle or are administered through a sharp injection to the forearm. Despite economic and medical progress in urban India, many rural villages and communities lack access to any form of health care. Access to healthcare in rural areas is an issue that the U.S. and India share, and the impressive medical advancements in cities provide a stark contrast to the impoverished, resource-poor villages and towns where people still die from preventable and curable illnesses.

IMG_8336

Overlooking fields in the village of Valli

It is easy to romanticize village life when you watch it fly past you from the car window. Rural Rajasthan, a northern state of India, becomes a blur of rolling hills of green, cows churning fresh dirt and women’s saris blowing in the wind against misty-blue mountains. It is monsoon season, so everything in this usually dry and arid land is made green and growing. Only 3 months ago, Rajasthan was suffering from a severe drought, where 17,000 villages were facing a water crisis that required government support. In this region, droughts affect water and food supply as well as people’s livelihoods since farming and drinking wells are dependent on a constant supply of rainwater. The life of a farmer is very physically demanding as well, resulting in many health complications later in life; oftentimes, farmers are unable to afford treatment at a hospital or private clinic due to their insufficiently small income. Last year, due to weather-related crop loss, 11 farmers committed suicide in 45 days, a small reflection of the thousands of farmer suicides that occur in India every year.

In 1989, 15 children in a rural Rajasthan village died from Diphtheria, a highly infectious nose and throat infection that is easily preventable and curable. Jagran Jan Vikas Samiti (JJVS), the NGO that I currently work at through the GESI program, was alarmed by this horrible tragedy and the lack of mobilization by the government to prevent or control it.

It is difficult to provide a successful and sustainable healthcare delivery system for the marginalized of any community, and even more so in rural areas. Healthcare tends to be located in urban and more affluent towns and cities, as healthcare providers tend to set up clinics in areas of social mobility and development where their patients are able to pay for their services, and the doctors have access to more resources and better accommodations. Indian government programs providing healthcare and other necessary services to rural areas have so far been lacking in resources and man-power, and the government has a concerning lack of interest in the welfare of the rural poor. Of the public government clinics that exist in Rajasthan, 56% of them are absent of any health care provider. Often, the closest biomedical, or allopathic, care is hours away by bus, which can become expensive, inconvenient and dangerous in the case of medical emergencies.

Traditional healers, unnoticed and unrecognized, have been treating common illness in rural villages for hundreds of years, passing down knowledge of medicinal plants from generation to generation. Allopathic medicine from a pharmacy or hospital is inaccessible and expensive – medicinal plants, however, grow easily in rural forests and gardens. JJVS, after realizing the dangerous lack of access to healthcare and unjust lack of interest in rural village welfare, has partnered with these traditional healers to improve the health of rural Rajasthan. Titling them as “Gunis”, JJVS identifies, trains, and provides resources to Gunis by widening their knowledge base of medicinal plants and human physiology, teaching them new techniques in Ayurveda, an ancient Indian system of holistic and natural healing, and Myotherapy, a manual therapy that deals with the musculoskeletal system, and building medicinal gardens and Guni treatment centers.

Rodi Bai-1

Guni Roti Bai treating an ear infection with local medicinal plant

Putaya Bai-1

Guni Pratapi Bai setting a broken foot

While collecting Guni Life Histories for my internship with JJVS, I have been able to observe Gunis at work. I was able to watch Pratapi Bai, a renowned female Guni and bone-setter, massage a broken foot back into place with her strong and weathered hands.

These competent healers have a lifetime of knowledge that is now complemented by JJVS resources and trainings and shared with the wider community. By providing safe, affordable and effective care, Gunis, trusted local healers, have the potential to change the health of rural Rajasthan for the better. Through talking with these Gunis, I have gained a new appreciation for what it means to be a healer and the benefits of Ayurveda and Naturopathic medicine in this rural context.

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